Wednesday, October 21, 2009

GQC: Prison Journal

George Q. Cannon kept a diary while in the penitentiary. It was written in ink in a small leather-bound notebook and was found among his effects at his death. It starts with September 17, 1888 and ends on December 12, 1888. He was released from prison on February 21, 1889.[1] The entries that follow are from his prison journal.

September 17, 1888 (Monday):

The carriage which Bro. C.H. Wilcken had provided (one of the finest barouches of Grant Bro’s. & Co.) and driven by Bro. Chariton Jacobs, and which had carried Bro’s. F. S. Richards, LeGrand Young, C. H. Wilcken and myself from the Gardo House[2] to the Court Room, was accepted by Marshal Dyer to carry me to the Penitentiary. He and myself occupied the hind seat and Bro. Wilcken sat in front of us….The conversation on the way out was quite free and unrestrained and I enjoyed the ride. The Warden, Arthur Pratt was at Provo. Mr. Jenney and Mr. Doyle, turnkeys, the first outside, the second inside were at their posts, and I was introduced to them. The Marshal showed me through the main building which contains the cells and explained the method of opening and closing them. He spoke about my having my bed in the corridor, which is open and roomy, but thought I had better have a cell in which to keep things. He assigned me No. 120 on the end of the row on south and close to the lavatory. I told him and the other officials including the Warden whom I saw upon his return) that I did not wish them to grant me favors that would embarrass them by calling forth attacks from our enemies. I preferred sleeping in my cell, wearing the prison clothing and conforming in other respects to the rules of the prison. I would like the privilege of sending out and receiving manuscript. This the marshal said I could do. The brethren and the Marshal then left me…Bro. Wilcken brought an iron bedstead and a wire and woolen mattress; but they filled up the cell. By putting the wire mattress on the floor and making the bed on the floor, I did very well. We had supper at 5 p.m. The brethren bought me a pint of milk. We had oatmeal mush…At 6:30 p.m. all the prisoners, except those engaged in special duties, were required to come in the building. There are three tiers of cells, one above another. Those who are in the two lower tiers are soon locked in their cells; but the upper tier where I am is occupied by ‘trusties’ and our cells are not closed till about 8.45 p.m. The Warden gave me the privilege of keeping my cell door open if I so wished, a privilege which I accepted. Light are permitted in the cells – candles – as long as the occupants choose I suppose. There is a large lamp burning all night; it throws light in the cells. At nine o’clock p.m., at three taps of the bell, all conversation and noise must cease. I forgot to mention that, before the cells are closed of a night, a guard passes in front of all the cells and counts the prisoners, who stand at the door of their cells. There are two occupants to a cell as a rule, and as there are 120 cells, 240 prisoners can be accommodated. The cells are iron, 5 feet by 7 feet, and the front, including the door, is iron lattice-work. The prisoners sleep on strips of canvass, stretched lengthwise in the cells, one above another and fastened at each end by leather straps. After being slept in, they assume a trough-like form, and are not comfortable the brethren say. A mattress helps the sleeping very much, as it has a tendency to level up the hammock. Brothers A. N. Hill and his son Samuel and Bro. W. J. Parkin were sentenced to-day and came out to the penitentiary. The first had 50 days and a fine of fifty dollars; the second had 60 days and a fine of [omitted] and the third had fifty days and fifty dollars. Quite a contrast between these sentences and those inflicted by Judge Zane. When these brethren arrived there were loud yells of ‘fresh fish’ heard all over the yard; this being the mode of salutation with which all new arrivals at the penitentiary are received. I escaped this reception, a fact that was commented upon by the brethren. My arrival created a sensation among the prisoners, especially among the brethren. They gathered around me and were desirous to know all that had occurred. I made full explanations…It is two years and six months to the day, since the time I should have appeared in Judge Zane’s court and two years and seven months to the day since I was put under $45,000 bonds.

September 18, 1888 (Tuesday):

At 5 o’clock a.m. the guard came along in front of the cells and tapped at the doors of the ‘trusties.’ When they were dressed the doors of the cells were opened and they marched off Indian file, to their labor. At six o’clock a bell was rung a number of times and we had to arise and dress. In the corner of every cell there is a recess in which a galvanized slop bucket with a cover stands. On the bucket is painted in large figures the number of the cell. Smells from this recess ascend through a ventilating shaft…This slop pail is for the night use of the occupants of each cell. At 6.30 a.m. the bell taps and every cell door is opened and from each is borne the ‘dunnigan’ as this vessel is called and is carried down outside and emptied. It is then rinsed out and is left in the yard till night. After this the prisoners are left to occupy their time, performing their ablutions, walking, as they please till breakfast time. When the taps of the bell are heard the prisoners march in Indian file into the dining room, where they stand on each side of the table until the bell taps, then they sit down. There are several tables in the room and there are waiters to each. All who do the work are prisoners. Through not understanding the best way I, twice to-day, had to sit among the ‘toughs’ as they are called. This name is applied to all who are committed for other crimes and offences than for violating the Edmunds-Tucker law. I am told there are 22 of them here, either convicted of murder, or awaiting trial for that crime. There are about 100 ‘toughs’ and to-day about 50 of our people for living with their wives. The ‘toughs’ are a most desperate lot of human beings, and the manner in which they profane the name of Diety is awful to the ears of the Saints. No knives and forks are permitted…The brethren have improvised knives out of spoon handles and other scraps of metal they have got hold of and made wooden forks. Spoons are permitted. Breakfast this morning consisted of meat swimming in soup gravy in a tin plate, with some small potatoes in their jackets and about two thick slices of bread…I do not drink either coffee or tea…At supper, at 5 p.m., we hade a plate of mush and tea and bread. I have ordered milk like the other brethren and Bro. Winslow Farr has helped me to butter at each meal, which as I am not much of a meat eater, I have appreciated.

September 19, 1888 (Wednesday):

…Bro. John Squires shaved me and insisted on cleaning my shoes. I worked at my Life of Joseph. I also had a good walk in the yard before and after breakfast and conversed with several of the brethren about their cases and their feelings and testimonies. Bro. Wilcken and my son Abraham visited me, and brought me a nice vessel for my butter and also some butter, and a stone pitcher for my milk, and some peaches. They also brought a wire cot and woolen mattrass better suited, because of being narrower, than the bed I have this latter they took back. I was permitted to converse with them half an hour…I was measured this morning by Bro. Burgon, one of the prisoners, for my prison suit. In the afternoon…had a visit from Brothers James Jack and O. P. Arnold. They brought me a small box of cigars for Mr. Doyle, the Turnkey, and a bag of grapes. When a visitor comes with permission to see a convict the Turnkey outside informs the guard on the walls, who shouts the name aloud. This is taken up by the convicts and the whole place resounds with the name of the person desired. If more than one is asked for then all the names are called out. There is a line plainly marked in the yard which is called ‘the dead line.’ This must be crossed in the face of a guard on the wall armed with a Winchester rifle. The rule is for the convict, who crosses the dead line to go to the gate, to throw up his hand as a signal to the guard on the wall, who responds. The inside gate is opened from the outside. When the convict whose name has been called opens that gate, he finds himself between that and the outside gate. They are three or four feet apart. Then the janitor opens the outside gate and the prisoner emerges into the passage way. There is still another gate to pass through; but in the daytime it stands open. In a small wooden building the visitor sits awaiting. All the conversation must be in the hearing of a guard. No writing must pass without his examination of it. Nothing is permitted to be carried in without undergoing scrutiny. I am told that I can go outside and read the local daily papers, but they must not be taken inside. Semi-weekly papers, or weeklies, are the only ones admitted.

September 20, 1888 (Thursday):

…I spent time to-day on my Life of the Prophet. Bro. Franklin S. Richards was brought out to-day by Bro. C. H. Wilcken. He had a long private conversation with me in the Warden’s Office concerning the plots of my enemies. Nelson and C. C. Goodwin of the Tribune had been before the Grand Jury to give testimony…against me with the hope to get me indicted for adultery. The most of my wives had been got out of the way. Bro. Richards desired my views respecting my wife Carlie giving testimony to show she was my legal wife, having been married to me subsequent to the death of my wife Elizabeth. He left me till to-morrow to think about it.

September 21, 1888 (Friday):

Had another visit from Bro. F. S. Richards and another private conversation with him. I told him to keep Carlie from giving evidence if it could be done without injury to my case; but if it appeared that matters would be worse if her evidence should not be forthcoming then for her to be produced and go before the Grand Jury…My sons Frank and Abraham spent half an hour with me. I told them of a plan I had to get up a work in which the judicial proceedings of the Courts for the past three years would be set forth. I desired them to take it in hand as soon as convenient after the Life of the Prophet is completed…[T]he Grand Jury visited the penitentiary. About six or eight of them called upon me…I worked very hard to-day at the MS of my Life of Joseph.

September 22, 1888 (Saturday):

…Warden Pratt invited me out to his office to read the daily papers sent to me. He remarked that anything I wanted in the shape of food &c. would be permitted to come in to me.

September 23, 1888 (Sunday):

I sponged off with a wet towel this morning in my cell…At 3 p.m. there was religious service held; a Swedish minister did the preaching. He read his discourse from MS. I am told it was much better than the average discourse from the ministers, Methodist and Episcopalian, who come here. The subject was the resurrection of the Savior. The singing was by a choir, composed with one exception, of our people, and was led by Bro. Lorenzo Waldron. The organ was played by a colored boy who is sent here for rape.

September 24, 1888 (Monday):

My visitors to-day were my son Abraham…I worked all my spare time at my Life of the Prophet Joseph. A new order was issued to-day concerning the closing of the cells on the tier where I was. They were closed at 6.45 p.m. instead of 8.45 p.m. Eight of the brethren were released this morning…

September 25, 1888 (Tuesday):

Brother C. H. Wilcken and Charles Nibley came to see me to-day. I was kept very busy preparing MS for my Life of the Prophet Joseph. The brethren are all very kind in bringing me articles that I need.

September 26, 1888 (Wednesday):

My son Abraham and Bro. Webber came to see me to-day. Prepared MS for my Life of Joseph.

September 27-30, 1888 (Thursday to Sunday):

…My cell has seemed a heavenly place and I feel that angels have been there. I have had visitors each day – Bro’s. C. H. Wilcken, H. B. Clawson, Wm. Budge, F.S. Richards, Le Grand Young, my sons Abraham, Franklin, wife and son, and Hugh…and a Real Estate Agent named Glassman who came with Brother Grow to see me about some disputed land over Jordan, the title of which is in Pres. B. Young’s estate….On Sunday I opened a Bible Class at 9 o’clock. There were fully 60 brethren present and a number of the other prisoners. We read the first five chapters of Matthew and then I asked Questions concerning what we had read. We opened and closed by singing and prayer. A most delightful spirit prevailed and I felt – and this was the general feeling – that great good would be done by keeping this up. At 2 p.m. we all had to repair to the dining room to attend religious services. Professor Talmage and Bro. C. H. Wilcken and two other brethren and three sisters had come from the City to hold meeting. The singing was very delightful and caused the tears to come to my eyes. Brother Talmage delivered an interesting discourse.

October 1, 1888 (Monday):

My sons Franklin and Abraham came out and had a private interview with me this morning, this privilege having been granted by the Marshal. I gave them my ideas concerning the book which I wished to have published. My son David[3] came out with them. We were very glad to meet. Brother C. H. Wilcken also came out as usual. He brought two boxes of grapes which I had Bishop Winslow Farr and Bro. John Squires divide among the brethren.

The Preface to The Life of Joseph Smith the Prophet, Salt Lake City, Juvenile Instructor Office, 1888, is dated October 1, 1888, Utah Penitentiary. It states, "To the Author its preparation has been a loving duty. In the midst of a somewhat busy and laborious life, he has found comfort in the contemplation of this great subject. The closing chapters, detailing the final sufferings upon earth of the Prophet of God and his ever-constant brother, were finished in a prison for adherence to the principles which they taught, and for this, the Life is invested with a dearer regard. To send the work away now is like being torn from a beloved companion when most the solace of his friendly presence is needed."

October 2, 1888 (Tuesday):

I wrote Topics &c. for the Juvenile Instructor this morning. I had many visitors in the afternoon…[including] my son Abraham, my brother David and my brother Angus’ wife Amanda…I learned that Bro. John Squires has been pardoned by President Cleveland. My brother David [who] surrendered to the deputy, Marshal McGeary, had been tried before Commissioner Jordan at Silver Reef – there were five witnesses in the case – and he had been acquitted. This was good news…

October 3, 1888 (Wednesday):

It is very gratifying to be told, as I have been a number of times that my coming here had been productive of good in the improved feeling there is manifest on every hand. My coming has been a comfort to the brethren here. There has been so much talk of concession, and Brother Caine’s speech in Congress, to the effect that ‘polygamy is a dead issue,’ that some of the brethren scarcely knew what to think. My coming here has had a good effect on this account, if upon no other, it proves that the leading men are willing to suffer but not to concede. Brother Joseph Thurber, who has been here longer than any of the brethren - 21 months - says last Sunday was the best Sabbath he has seen in the penitentiary. Others remarked the same.

October 4-5, 1888 (Thursday to Friday):

These are visiting days. At 9 o’clock three bells are rung and we all had to go into the prison, so that we would be at our cells when called. The visitors have two hours during which they can come in the forenoon and two hours in the afternoon. Each visitor or party of visitors can only remain half an hour. The interviews take place in the dining room and there is more liberty allowed there than upon other occasions; that is, the guards did not stand and listen to all that was said. Brother Arthur Stayner spent half an hour with me on each of these days conversing upon the manufacture of sugar. On Thursday he was followed by Bro. Geo. Stringfellow whose kindness in calling so often in 1878 to see Brothers Brigham Young, A. Carrington and myself when imprisoned for contempt of court by Judge Boreman, I shall not forget.[4] At the close of my talk with him Bro. C. H. Wilcken came with Sister Roueche, also Bro’s. John Morgan and M. F. Cowley. I…told Brother Morgan I wished the Sunday School Union or particularly Brother Geo. Goddard and he would procure us an Organ for our Sunday School and worship in the Penitentiary. I was called to-day as one of the pump police. Their duties are to pump water with a force pump out of the well in the yard to the cistern in the top of the building. There are six assigned to this duty each day and they are kept busy. Bro. Mark Burgess proffered to do my share at pumping. Several others did also. I felt much obliged to them and accepted him as a substitute with the expectation of paying him.

October 6, 1888 (Saturday):

I had a call from Bro. J.L. Townsend of Payson and arranged to have articles, illustrated, on Botany written by him for the Juvenile Instructor. Bro. C. H. Wilcken also made a visit as usual. Bishop H. B. Clawson called and had private conversation, by permission, with me…

October 7, 1888 (Sunday):

The new organ came out yesterday afternoon, and the Warden, Mr. Arthur Pratt, gave me the privilege of holding Sunday School in the dining room. The officials are very kind and accommodating and our people are surprised at the favors granted. Contrary to usual custom the floor of the dining room was washed last evening instead of this morning, so that it might be ready for us. Including myself there were 81 present at school this morning. I divided them into four classes and gave one to Bishop Winslow Farr, to F. C. Boyer, and Saml H. Hill and to myself. I spent about 45 minutes explaining what we had read. Mr. Putnam of the Episcopal Church came out to hold services in the afternoon. He went through the forms, reading prayers, and responses were made by a lady and young man whom he brought with him. His discourse was a very weak effort.

October 8, 1888 (Monday):

Had calls to-day from…my cousin Joseph J. Taylor and Bro. C. H. Wilcken.

October 9, 1888 (Tuesday):

…Had calls from…my son Abraham…

October 10, 1888 (Wednesday):

Bro. C. H. Wilcken brought out a wagon load of my children to-day. I was greatly pleased to see them, though sorry to find that Read has been and still is quite sick, suffering from fever. There were Lewis, Rose, Annie, Emily, Brigham, Read, Joseph, Sylvester, Preston, Carl, Mary and Ether Davey. William also came and brought with him Emma Wilcken, a daughter of Bro. C. H. Wilcken. Brother H. B. Clawson also came out and had a private interview with me. Since Bro. John Squire’s departure, he having been pardoned, I have been shaving in the barber’s shop in the yard, in which two of the convicts do the shaving. I am to pay them so much a month, according to the number of times they shave me. They use my razors, soap, &c. I get a bath once a week. The man who keeps the bath rooms in order is quite accommodating and lets me bathe when the rush is over. Shaving and bathing at regular times are compulsory. If these rules and the cleaning of the cells were not strictly enforced the condition of affairs in the prison would soon be unbearable, for some of the prisoners would soon become filthy.

October 11, 1888 (Thursday):

…Twelve of the brethren came in on Tuesday evening from Judge Judd’s court at Provo…I had a very pleasant visit with Bro. Will. A. Dougall and his wife, Maria; the latter a daughter of Pres. B. Young. She brought me a beautiful bouquet, which I afterwards gave to a typhoid patient…My son Frank[5] called and had an interesting conversation with him concerning the book I wish written and published concerning the administration of the Edmunds-Tucker law. Afterwards had private conversations with Bro. F. S. Richards and C. H. Wilcken…I wrenched my knee this morning in bed - the knee that I sprained some years ago and that I hurt when I fell off the train - and I suffer pain in it when I walk.

October 12, 1888 (Friday):

Had conversation with Mr. Doyle, the Turnkey on our principles and bore testimony to him concerning their divine origin. Had a visit from Brothers John Henry Smith and Heber J. Grant…Bro. Saml H. Hill received the sad news of the death of one of his sons, 11 years old, of dyptheria. He was permitted to go to the funeral services accompanied by a deputy marshal…

October 13 to 19, 1888 (Saturday to Friday):

…On Sunday I held Bible class and was called out to see Brothers F. S. Richards, S. Thurman, Judge Dusenberry and W. H. King of Fillmore. Bro. Thurman came to explain his management of the cases of the brethren at Provo, with which I had told Bro. F. S. Richards the brethren who had been sentenced there were much dissatisfied. Brothers Dusenberry and King came to see me about political matters. Mr. Putnam preached on Sunday and did better than before. He passed my cell where I stood with several others and he came to me and asked how I was and said I was looking very well. I do not know how he knew me. I have had visitors every day. Brother C. H. Wilcken, my Sons Abraham, who brought Willard, Grace and Brigham; he also came himself the next day…David and Mary Alice called on Wednesday and Frank and Hugh on Thursday…I gave Mary Alice an Order on my son Abraham for $20 each quarter of the year. This is the interest of $1,000 which now that she is 21 years of age, I desire her to have. Her birthday was the 16th inst. Bro. C. H. Wilcken called upon me on Friday, the 19th, and brought two trout and a lot of wild ducks for me. He gave the Warden fish, and ducks also. I desired to leave mine outside for the guards or to be cooked for the sick or the aged; but the Warden urged me to have them taken in and have them cooked. I had the cooks divide them with the guards and themselves and others whom they thought suitable. I had a piece of fish myself and a small piece of duck.

October 21, 1888 (Sunday):

…Bible class [is] very interesting to me. There were nearly one hundred present this morning. In the afternoon Mr. and Mrs. Archibald (Methodists) held meeting. She is a very sweet singer. He preached the best, so I am told, he ever did. He praised men who had backbone and who stood up for the right; and said the nearer men lived to God the more they would be opposed. Dr. Shipp has been very attentive to me in rubbing my knee and it has much improved.

October 23-25, 1888 (Tuesday to Thursday):

I had calls from Bro. C. H. Wilcken…and my son Abraham on Thursday. On Wednesday, I was for the first time…spoken to authoritatively by any one of the guards. A set of rules has been recently drawn up and printed and hung up for the prisoners to observe. Among them is one to the effect that a prisoner must take off his hat when he enters a room where the guards are. I was called outside to the round house to meet Brother Wilcken. I entered and sat down, as had been the practice previously, without taking off my cap. Brother Joseph Thurber did the same…One of the guards, who has been brought from the city to take the place of one who is sick, and whose name is Bush, punched Bro. Thurber with his cane and told him to take off his cap; then he turned to me and told me to do the same, and directed my attention to the rules which were hanging up. I did so without any remark; but the manner of the man stirred up Bro. Wilcken and when he saw him prepared to sit down and listen to our conversation he stepped out to Mr. Hudson and requested the privilege of speaking to me alone, he having an order from the Marshal to have this privilege whenever he desired it. Mr. Hudson came in and told me to walk over to the Warden’s office where we could converse alone. It is this Mr. Bush who had Bro. N. V. Jones put in the sweat box when he was here for some trifling cause…Warden (Mr. Arthur Pratt) has spoken to me concerning Mr. Bush’ remark to me and hoped I would not notice it. He had sent him back to town, because he thought him unsuitable to be here.

October 26 to 30, 1888 (Friday to Thursday):

I have had three visits from Bro. C. H. Wilcken, two from Bro. Clawson…my sons Frank and Sylvester (Friday) and William and Lewis (Monday). The Marshal had an interview with me on Friday and another on Monday…Had a good time in Bible class on Sunday. No preacher came from town. Bishop Geo. Halliday and Bro. Henry Nebeker…came to prison Saturday evening.

October 30, 1888 (Tuesday):

Brothers F. D. Richards & F. S. Richards came to see me about Receiver’s compensation and affairs of Deseret News Co…I had calls through the week from my daughter Mary Alice and sons Abraham, David, Preston & Carl. Bro. Wilcken came every day. Brothers H. B. Clawson, O. F. Whitney…A. O. Smoot…my sister Mary Alice…

November 4, 1888 (Sunday):

…Bro’s. S. P. Teasdal…and John T. Caine with whom I had a long conversation in the Warden’s parlor…

November 6 to 21, 1888 (Tuesday to Wednesday):

During this period I have had the usual visitors…On Tuesday and Thursday [Nov. 8] I sat for my portrait with the brethren. They formed different groups, and each group desired me to sit with them. Thursday was a very chilly day and I was kept out, most of the time with my head uncovered, for about two hours, sitting before the Camera. The result was I took a very heavy cold. Bro. C. R. Savage, accompanied by May Wells the first day, and Bro. Ottinger, Jr., the second day, was the photographer.

On Tuesday, the 20th I was surprised by receiving a visit from Hon. Geo. A. Halsey of New Jersey, who had come out to the Pen. To see me. We had served together in Congress.[6] He was accompanied by a party of prominent gentlemen, to whom I was introduced. Mr. Halsey said he had been much interested in watching my case and therefore desired to see me. After inquiring as to my treatment and how I bore my confinement he asked me what I would do when I got out. This he said pressed upon him…I described how necessary it was that we should have clearly defined what we could do with our families and what we could not do without violating law. In conclusion Mr. Halsey said when you get free, you have influence, come East and get these matters arranged. I told him I might call upon him to help. He said he was not in Congress, but he would do what he could…On the same day I met and had conversation with Major Strong and Mr. Perry of the Dept of Justice who came here to inspect the prison. I have had an interview with Bro. John T. Caine and several interviews with Bro. F. S. Richards in which I have urged attention to a number of points, principal of which is to get some ruling, if possible, to define what men can do for their wives and children with out being open to arrest when they emerge from the Pen; and also to do everything possible to prevent indictments and convictions for adultery, especially to have a count for unlawful cohabitation and a count for adultery cover the same time. This I view as another form of segregation and punishing twice for the same offence…I find it difficult to get down to writing much in prison. The atmosphere is not favorable to it, besides the brethren keep me well occupied relating to me their circumstances, asking counsel, asking questions concerning doctrine, &c. In addition I am called out often to see visitors and this occupies considerable time.

November 29, 1888 (Thursday):

Was taken in the evening by [omitted] to Bro. Woodruff’s where I met Pres. W[oodruff]., Bro. Jos. F. Smith and Mr. Alex Badlam, Jr. Spent two hours & a half with them. (Must describe this meeting hereafter). At 9 p.m. [omitted] called for me and took me back. Bishop H. B. Clawson remained at the Warden’s while I was gone. On Saturday the Warden was kind enough to take me down to my house on the river and see my son Read who I was told was dying. I had a brief visit, with the Warden’s permission, with my folks and my sister-in-law, Jane Simonds. Read is very low. I felt well in administering to him. I took dinner at my wife Elizabeth’s late residence – the best meal I have had in eleven weeks.

December 12, 1888 (Wednesday):

I had two or three visits from Bro. John T. Caine before he left for his post at Washington…Had a call this morning from Marshal Dyer & Warden Pratt. They accompanied Mr. [omitted] one of the clerks of the House of Rep’s at Washington. Had a pleasant interview. The Marshal informs me that Apostle Lyman has surrendered this morning and asks till Jan. 12 to appear. [This is the last entry from George’s prison journal.]

On February 21, 1889, George was released from the penitentiary after five months. President Wilford Woodruff wrote in his journal: “G Q Cannon left the prision this Morning. Called at My house at the farm with Br Wilkin. I rode with him to his. I went with Brother Cannon to his house. Took Breakfast then rode to the Presidents Office & met with many of the Brethren.”[7]


[1] Hamlin, p. 395.
[2] The Gardo House had been the business office of Brigham Young and later was the business office of the presidents of the Church. (Hamlin, p. 395, n. 15)
[3] David H. Cannon died shortly thereafter while on a mission to Germany. Hamlin, p. 401, n. 21.
[4] George Q. Cannon, Albert Carrington, and Brigham Young, Jr., as executors of the estate of Brigham Young, refused to divulge certain facts to the Court and were sentenced to the state penitentiary on August 4, 1879 (not 1878) for contempt of court. On August 28, 1879, the Supreme Court of Utah set aside Judge Boreman’s order and the prisoners were released. Hamlin, p. 402, n. 23.
[5] Frank had great admiration for his father. After his father’s death, he said the following: “There are memories in a man’s life that have a peculiar value. One such, to me, is the picture I have in mind of my father undergoing his penitentiary sentence, wearing his prison clothes with an unconsciousness that makes me still feel a pride in the power of the human soul to rise superior to the deformities of circumstance. Charles Wilcken…was visiting him one day in the prison office, when a guard entered with his hat on. Wilcken snatched it from his head. ‘Never enter his presence,’ he said, ‘without taking it off.’ And the guard never did again…I salute the memory. I come to it with my head bare and my back stiffened. I see in that calm face the possibilities of the human spirit. He was a man!…He spent his time, there, as he would have spent it elsewhere, writing, conferring with the agents of his authority, planning for his people….I know now - though he never said so - that he was looking toward the necessary recession from the doctrine of polygamy, and that he may have counted on the spectacle of his imprisonment to help prepare his people for a general submission to the law” (Under the Prophet, pp. 81-82)
[6] Halsey was a manufacturer from New Jersey and served two terms in the House of Representatives. Hamlin, p. 408, n. 28.
[7] WW Diary, p. 381.

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