Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Treblinka Extermination Camp

After Auschwitz-Birkenau, where approximately 1 million Jews were killed during World War II, Treblinka extermination camp came in a murderous second. An estimated 925,000 Jews were killed there. 
Treblinka is located 50 miles northeast of Warsaw, Poland. It was originally a gravel mine, then converted to a forced labor camp in September 1941 known as Treblinka I.  It usually had about 1,000 to 2,000 prisoners at a time who worked at a quarry and later harvested wood for use at Treblinka II when it was established. It existed for three years and about 10,000 of the 20,000 inmates that were there died of exhaustion, hunger and disease.
Map of Treblinka I, the gravel pit and the execution site for Treblinka I prisoners. 
The gravel quarry today.
Remnants of Treblinka I
Foundation of a building at Treblinka I.
Memorial at the execution site.
Memorial at the execution site.
Treblinka II was the third of three extermination camps established after Hitler decided on the Final Solution (extermination) for the Jews (the other two were Belzec and Sobibor). It was 42 acres and surrounded by two barbed wire fences 8 feet tall, with pine tree branches interwoven in between the wire to obstruct the view in and out. It was divided into three parts. Camp 1 was an administrative compound.
Map of Treblinka II. The administration compound is at the bottom. 
Camp 2 was a receiving area where trains brought in prisoners to unload. A building there was disguised as a railway station, complete with a fake ticket window, fake rail schedules and fake destination signs. About 100 yards from the track, behind a fence, were two barracks used for undressing and a cashier's booth to collect money and jewelry. The women's barracks was on the left and the men's on the right. To the right was a sorting square where all of the baggage of the victims was collected and sorted. It was near a fake infirmary with a Red Cross sign on it, called the Lazaret. Sick, old, wounded and "difficult" prisoners were taken there. Behind it was a 23 foot deep pit. Victims taken to the Lazaret were led to the edge of the pit and shot one at a time in the head by Willi Mentz, named "Frankenstein" by the prisoners. Frankenstein killed thousands of victims single-handedly. The victims fell into the pit and their bodies were burned.
A closer look at Camp 2 and Camp 3.
This diorama from the Visitors Center shows portions of Camp 2 (foreground) and Camp 3 (background). The women's and men's barracks are to the left and the fake train station is to the right. 
The sorting square where belongings are grouped into like items, two buildings to the front right that stored sorted belonings, and the Lazaret to the back right. 
From a different angle.
Camp 3 was where the gas chambers were located. It was screened from the railway track by an earthen bank built by a mechanical digger. A forested path, called the "path to heaven," or "the tube," led from the undressing barracks to the gas chambers. Unlike Auschwitz-Birkenau where Zyklon B gas (hydrogen cyanide) was used, the engine of a Red Army tank pumped exhaust fumes by pipes into each of the initial three gas chambers. Later, in September 1942, a larger building was built with 8 to 10 gas chambers supplied by exhaust from two Red Army tanks. The people were killed in about 20 minutes. The men were gassed first and women and children second. They initially could kill 12,000 to 15,000 people in a 14 hour workday, and when the new gas chambers were built, increased it to 22,000 to 25,000 people in a day.
Camp 3 from the back. The gas chambers in the white building top right. 
For the first six months of Treblinka the bodies were buried. However, in April 1943, the Nazis discovered the graves of 10,000 Polish officers killed by the Russians in 1940 in the Katyn massacre. The bodies were still well preserved. Concerned about their own crimes being discovered, the Nazis issued orders to exhume the corpses buried at their death camps and to burn them. At Treblinka, large cremation pits were dug at Camp 3 and railroad rails were laid out as grates on a cement foundation. Bodies, both newly gassed and those exhumed, were laid out on the grates, splashed with gasoline and burned. It took five hours to burn the flesh of a body and the remaining bones were crushed with a mallet. 10,000 to 12,000 bodies could be burned at one time. The pyres operated 24 hours a day.

On August 2, 1943, 700 Jewish prisoners had an uprising, setting fires and blowing up a gasoline tank. About 200 escaped, about half of those were killed within a day or so, and about 70 survived to the end of the war, including Samuel Willenberg, the author of the book I cite below. Rather than rebuild, the Nazis decided to close the camp as most of the Jews in the Polish ghettos had been killed. On August 18 and 19, 1943, the last transports of Jews came into Treblinka, 76 train cars from the Bialystok ghetto.

A majority of the Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto were sent there: 265,000 from July 22 to September 12, 1942 by two shuttle trains daily, each with about 60 cars, one in the morning and one in the afternoon, each carrying from 4,000 to 7,000 victims.

In Surviving Treblinka, by Samuel Willenberg, who was one of an estimated 40 to 70 people to survive Treblinka, an introduction by Wladyslaw T. Bartoszewski shares a composite of statements made by the SS to Jewish victims (as set forth in The Drowned and the Saved by Primo Levi): "However this war may end, we have won the war against you; none of you will be left to bear witness, but even if someone were to survive, the world would not believe him. There will perhaps be suspicions, discussions, research by historians, but there will be no certainties, because we will destroy the evidence together with you. And even if some proof should remain and some of you survive, people will say that the events you describe are too monstrous to be believe: they will say that they are exaggerations of Allied propaganda and will believe us, who will deny everything, and not you. We will be the ones to dictate the history of the [labor, concentration and death camps]."

The Nazis did everything they could to cover up evidence of the extermination camp. They had Jewish workers dismantle the gas chamber, brick-by-brick, and used them to erect a farmhouse. The extermination area was leveled, ploughed over and planted with lupins.

Most of the extermination camp at Treblinka was obliterated. However, the memorial at Treblinka is simple, beautiful and powerful.

Rectangular stones, representing train tracks, show where the trains came in.

A flat area next to the train tracks represents the platform. 
From the tracks and platform you can look back and see the beginning of Camp 3.
These stones indicate countries from where Jews were brought into the camp. 
A 26 foot tall granite memorial, designed to represent a tombstone, was placed on the site of the gas chambers. It is carved with abstract reliefs and Jewish symbols. 

A menorah on the back side of the monument. 
17,000 quarried stones symbolizing grave stones, are placed in the areas where mass burials took place. Some of the stones, about 130, have inscriptions of places where at least 5,000 victims were brought to Treblinka by train.
A stone representing the victims of Warsaw. 

A stone representing Czestochowa, a city we visited. 

There is also a flat marker resembling one of the incineration pits where the bodies were burned. The marker has melted basalt, symbolizing burnt charcoal, on a concrete foundation. The actual human ashes at the time were mixed with sand and spread out over 5.4 acres. 
Representing the incineration pit. 

Instead of flowers, Jews put stones on graves. Here in the incineration pit stones have been placed on the basalt, some of them with Hebrew inscriptions (or at least what I assume is Hebrew). This article talks about why Jews put stones on graves rather than flowers. 
Treblinka is a solemn place. A beautiful and haunting memorial where an unimaginable number of people were murdered. In many respects I liked it more than Auschwitz-Birkenau. Fewer people visiting, more abstract, and a more concentrated area. 

Sunday, August 4, 2019

Auschwitz - Birkenau

There were an estimated 9.7 million Jews in pre-World War II Europe and 3.4 million of them, more than one-third, lived in Poland. I had no idea. Jews were ten percent of the population of Poland. The Warsaw ghetto (400,000) had more Jews than all of France (300,000); the Lodz ghetto had more Jews (160,000) than all of the Netherlands (140,000); Krakow had more Jews (70,000) than all of Italy (46,000). Any medium sized town in Poland had more Jews than all of Scandinavia. However, by the end of the war, about 3 million of the Polish Jews, 88.25% of the total, were dead, about one-half of the estimated 6 million Jews killed during the war. The carnage and impact on the Jewish communities can hardly be imagined. 

The camps at Auschwitz-Birkenau killed about 1 million Jews, one-sixth of the total, the single biggest Jewish slaughter-house. Jews from all over Europe were taken there. Of that 1 million, about 300,000 were from Poland, carried by freight trains from ghettos and transit camps like Bytom, Olkusz, Otwock, Lomza, Ciechanow, Krakow, Sosnowiec, Bedzin, Dabrowa and Lodz. Surprisingly, there were more Jewish Hungarians killed there than Polish, about 430,000. In addition there were 69,000 Jews from France; 60,000 from the Netherlands; 46,000 from Bohemia and Moravia; 55,000 from Greece; 27,000 from Slovakia; 25,000 from Belgium; and 23,000 from Germany and Austria. 

Auschwitz is about 41 miles west of Krakow. It was originally a Polish army barracks with 20 brick buildings, 6 of which were two-story. It was approved as the site for a concentration camp for political prisoners by Heinrich Himmler in April 1940. The first prisoners arrived in June 1940 and by August 1940 the first crematorium, known as Crematorium I, was operational (construction started at the end of June). The Crematorium I was not intended for mass murder, but for prisoners that were executed or died in camp. By the end of 1940 Auschwitz was surrounded by a double ring of electrified barbed wire fences and watchtowers. By March 1941 it had 10,900 prisoners. The 14 single story brick buildings had a second story added and 8 new blocks were built. By 1943, Auschwitz could hold 30,000 prisoners.  
Crematorium I at Auschwitz. 
The ovens that burned so many dead bodies. 

The two story brick buildings at Auschwitz. 
Living behind electrified barbed wire fences at Auschwitz. 

Auschwitz: the stuff of nightmares. 
Near the entrance to Birkenau.
Some time during 1941 Hitler's ideology toward the Jews changed. He determined that the Jews must be totally annihilated. Nazi victories over the Soviet Union in the summer and fall of 1941, part of Operation Barbarossa, gave Germany control over all of Poland and further east. On July 31, 1941, Hermann Goring gave written authorization to Reinhard Heydrich to prepare and submit a plan for the "Final Solution" of the Jewish question. The plan for extermination of all European Jews was formalized at the Wannsee Conference on January 20, 1942 in Berlin.

With the annihilation of the Jews in mind, construction at Birkenau, about 1.8 miles from Auschwitz, began in October 1941. Birkenau was designed as both a labor camp and an extermination camp. There were to be 174 barracks, four crematoria, and a reception building. Two temporary crematoria were built, the first was operational by March 1942, and the second by June 1942. Crematorium II (Crematorium I was at Auschwitz) was operational by March 1943 and the two temporary crematoria were shut down. By June 1943 all four of the new crematoria at Birkenau (Crematoria II, III, IV and V) were operational. 
The outside entrance to Birkenau and the railroad tracks that carried train loads of victims to it. 
At Auschwitz, gassings of prisoners using Zyklon B were first conducted in September 1941 in the basement of Block 11. There were problems, so gassings were moved to Crematorium I where more than 700 people could be killed at once. SS men would dump Zyklon B pellets through vents in the roof and the people inside were dead within 20 minutes. Jewish prisoners known as sonderkommandos, wearing gas masks, would drag the dead bodies from the chamber to be burned in the nearby incinerator. The ashes were then buried, thrown in the river, or used as fertilizer. By May 1942 three ovens had been installed in Crematorium I to help burn the additional dead. The new ovens could burn 340 bodies in 24 hours. Gassings at Crematorium 1 continued until December 1942, when they ceased, leaving the killing to the more efficient Crematoria at Birkenau where the vast majority of people were gassed, although tens of thousands of people were killed at Auschwitz.  

The greatest number of people were killed in the gas chambers from April to July 1944 when 437,000 Hungarian Jews were brought in by train, about 12,000 per day. A newly completed rail spur leading to Crematoria II and III increased the efficiency of the killings.
These railroad tracks continued inside Birkenau all the way down to Crematoria II and III.
One of the railroad cars that took Jews to the slaughter-houses. 
When inmates arrived by train there was an immediate selection process as they got off the train. Those deemed unfit for work, about 75% of the arrivals, such as children, women with small children and the elderly, were immediately sent to the gas chamber. If they were not sent immediately to the gas chamber, they were tattooed, shaved, disinfected and given a striped prison uniform. Jews wore a yellow badge, the shape of the Star of David on their uniform. At Auschwitz they left by a porch that faced a gate with a deceptive sign saying: "Arbeit macht frei" or "Work sets you free". 
The back of the sign "Arbeit macht frei"
Within Auschwitz, the blocks became known for different functions. Block 11 was where prisoners who violated camp rules were punished. It had a basement with dark cells where prisoners basically suffocated. The courtyard between block 11 and block 10 had a wall known as the "death wall" where Poles sent to death by a criminal court, not inmates at Auschwitz, were executed by shooting. 
The death wall between block 10 and 11. 
At Birkenau, each of the 174 barracks was to hold 744 inmates, making the planned capacity 125,000. Each barrack measured 116 by 36 feet, with 62 bays each of 43 square feet.  
Women's housing in barracks at Birkenau, behind an electrified barbed wire fence and a sentinel guard tower. 

Inside one of the women's barracks. Many women would be crammed into each one of those spaces, hardly able to move. 
Some Jewish prisoners, known as Sonderkommandos (special squads) helped with the work of the camps. Some removed corpses from incoming trains, guided victims to the dressing rooms and gas chambers and worked in the "Canada" barracks where the victims possessions were sorted and stored. 

Each crematorium had a dressing room, gas chamber and furnace room. SS officers told those arriving that they were going to take a shower and undergo delousing. They undressed in the dressing room, walked into the gas chamber disguised as showers, following signs in German that said "To the baths" and "To disinfection."
This is the "shower"/gassing area of Crematorium I at Auschwitz. 

Right across from Crematorium I is where the first commander of Auschwitz, Rudolph Hess, was hanged in 1947 for war crimes. 
A significant fraction of the arrivals were registered, 400,207 total (268,657 male and 131,560 female). Registration included a photo and something about them. My recollection is that the Nazis wanted a record of them in the event of an escape, so that they could identify them if caught. 
These registration photos were tough. They put a name and a face on each prisoner and to imagine that a million of them died...
Toward the end of the war as the Nazis realized they were going to lose, they tried to cover up the mass atrocities that were committed. Mass graves, from a time when the crematoria were not sufficient to burn all of the people being killed, were opened and the corpses were burned. 
I believe this is the roof to the underground gas chambers of Crematorium II. The concrete roof was covered with grass turf. It was dynamited by the SS near the end of the war. 
This is part of the oven area of Crematorium II at Birkenau, near the gas chambers, also dynamited by the SS near the end of the war.