Tuesday, October 27, 2009

Various Groups Start (October 1 to 10, 1849)

This is a continuation of my retracing George Q. Cannon’s 1849 journey.

October 1, 1849 (Monday):

Hunt Company (Hobble Creek): The Hunt company “had a meeting for organizing” at Hobble Creek.[1] Captain Jefferson Hunt of Company A” of the Mormon Battalion, “their guide,” had taken the “route” previously “with pack animals.” He “described the route” to the emigrants “with the roughest side out, lest they might say that he had misled them by making things more favorable than they really were. In concluding his remarks he said: ‘From Salt Springs, we cross to a sandy desert, distance seventy-five miles to Bitter Springs, the water so bitter the devil would not drink it; and from thence away hellwards, to California or some other place. Now, gentlemen, if you will stick together and follow me, I will lead you through to California all right; but you will have to make your own road, for there is none save the Old Spanish Trail from Santa Fe to California, by the Cajon Pass through the Sierra Nevada Mountains.’”[2]

Hobble Creek was named by O.P. Huntington when he lost a pair of hobbles at the creek.[3] A year later, in the fall of 1850, “Hobble Creek Settlement” consisted of “three or four log houses” and was “the last Mormon settlement” on the route. Hobble Creek was described as “a small, dashing, swift mountain stream, running through a good body of land.”[4] Today, Hobble Creek is where Springville, Utah is located.

October 2, 1949 (Tuesday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Peteetneet Creek to Willow Creek): They “moved intending to camp” at Summit Creek, “but found the grass burned off.” They “moved to some springs still higher up the valley” which was likely Willow Creek. “It was a cold windy night and snow fell on the mountains.”[5]

Hunt Company (Hobble Creek to Peteetneet Creek): The Hunt company left Hobble Creek and traveled six miles to Spanish Fork Creek, “a stream two rods wide and two feet deep.”[6] They then traveled another five miles[7] “to a small stream and camped.” This stream was known as Peteetneet Creek.

Pratt and Blackwell (Great Salt Lake City to Big Cottonwood Creek): Charles C. Rich, James S. Brown, Hiram H. Blackwell and Addison Pratt had previously pooled their resources and procured a wagon and three yoke of oxen. Pratt provided one yoke of oxen which he received as a gift from a Brother Tompkins.[8] Rich furnished one yoke of oxen and Brown furnished the wagon and one yoke of oxen.[9] The “loaded” wagon “sat at the Council House…on the temple block” ready for their “departure.” The wagon was equipped with a roadometer for “measuring the distance from place to place” on their journey. Pratt’s wife and daughters were there to see him off. Brothers Rich, Brown and Francis M. Pomeroy had horses and because general conference was so near, they decided to stay in Great Salt Lake City and attend conference. “As the emigrant company had already started and Captain Hunt was trying to hold them back” until Rich and his party “came up,” Pratt and Blackwell, “pushed ahead as fast as possible.” Pratt and Blackwell “did not cross the east fork of City Creek until sunset. (The creek forks at the mouth of the canyon. One branch runs on the west and the other on the east side of the city.)” They “traveled ten miles that night and stopped at Brother John Brown’s on Cottonwood Creek” where there was “a large settlement of brethren mostly from Mississippi.”[10] Joseph Hamelin, who was with the Pomeroy wagon train which left a month later, indicated that the “Cottonwood settlement” was “another location of Mormons” with “a fine sawmill and improvements equal to those of Great Salt Lake City.”[11]

David Cheesman, a non-Mormon emigrant from Illinois, was in the Great Salt Lake Valley a year later, in the summer and fall of 1850. Although the Valley and City had changed quite dramatically in the year since the forty-niners had gone, his account helps to provide a picture of the area as seen through the eyes of a contemporary. The following description is of the Great Salt Lake Valley as viewed from Emigration Canyon, which he referred to as Emigrant Canyon:

The valley of Salt Lake is picturesque…The Wasatch range of mountains swing around to the north in a semi-circle. Where abreast of the city the mountains turn in a northerly direction while south they incline in a direct line as far as the eye can see, with a short cropping in a westerly direction to the Jordan [point of the mountain], some 20 miles below, while north and south are a mountain range [Oquirrh Mountains] about 25 miles from base of the Wasatch range ending at the south end of the Great Salt Lake and dividing Salt Lake from Tuille [Tooele] Valley. The Great Salt Lake lay off to the northwest of the city but a few miles from the city and in full view.[12]

Salt Lake was in a building boom. “In the southwestern portion of the city plot, adobes were made, about as large again as ordinary brick. They were cast in molds and dried in yards prepared for that purpose. Building was going on in all directions and nearly all built of adobes.”[13] Salt Lake “was laid out on an extended plan and residences were dotted over an extent of two miles either direction. The streets…were very wide, 128 feet, so that teams could readily turn in the streets. Hay and grain were stacked on the lots, so that it looked like a farming country compressed within a small space.”[14] The “old fort occupied by the Mormons, the first year, on their arrival, was in the southwestern portion of the City.”[15]

“Adjoining Salt Lake” were “what was known as the Big Fields. They had outside enclosures and then subdivided into blocks with streets corresponding with those of the city, so that on increase of the city, these blocks could be subdivided and would correspond with the city plot.” The “fields were set out in five-acre lots so that residents of the city could have a chance to raise grain or herd their cows and horses in these large enclosures.”[16] David Cheesman noted the “first irrigation” he “had ever witnessed. The fields of wheat were irrigated and so with all vegetables.”[17]

“The road south to the Cottonwood and all settlements below passed through these fields.”[18] “The roads were good as there was considerable travel to and from the settlements south of Salt Lake City….On the way we passed a number of small farms, with some land enclosed for cultivation.”[19]

David Cheesman indicated that City Creek was a “splendid stream of cold, pure water, leaping and bounding down out of the mountain, shaded all the way with wild underground alder and other small timber. This creek supplied the city with water. [Brigham] Young forbade the cutting of any timber of the margin of this stream, keeping it in all its wild loveliness.”[20]

The Council House, on the road leading into the city from Emigration Canyon, served as a meeting place for emigrants to California. For example, David Cheesman and his group of 90 wagons met at the Council House in late summer 1850 and determined to take the southern route to California, rather than wait the winter and take the northern route.[21]

October 3, 1849 (Friday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Willow Creek to Salt Creek): They “moved over an even plain” to Salt Creek which had “good grass, water and wood.”[22]

Hunt Company (Peteetneet Creek): There was “snow on the mountains” and “chilly winds in the valley.” They stayed in “camp all day”[23] to divide the company into seven divisions and to elect officers.[24] The officers “consisted of one Colonel, one assistant,”[25] or adjutant,[26] and a captain for each one of the seven divisions. Each division was required “to guard”[27] the company one day of the week[28] and each division “took turns leading the train [during the week]…That is, the division that led the train one day fell into the rear next day, for the leader always had the hardest work, for the road had to be broken.” Each division also had “a name coined to suit the fancy of the division. Some of them were ‘Bug Smashers’, ‘Buck Skins’, ‘Wolverine’, ‘Hawk Eye’…[and] ‘Jay Hawkers of Forty Nine’.”[29] Because of the election, the company named the creek Election Creek.[30]

Peteetneet Creek, or Election Creek (named after the election held there by the Jefferson Hunt Company) is where Payson, Utah is now located.

Pratt and Blackwell (Big Cottonwood Creek): One of the oxen belonging to James S. Brown “had not been worked for more than a year” and was “very fat and tenderfooted.” When they arrived at Big Cottonwood Creek “he was so lame he could go no further.” Hiram Blackwell “went back” for James Brown to let him know of the situation.[31]

Addison Pratt’s reference to Cottonwood Creek is to Big Cottonwood Creek. Little Cottonwood Creek enters the Jordan River about a mile south of the mouth of Big Cottonwood Canyon.[32]

October 4, 1849 (Thursday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Salt Creek): This was a resting day. Shearer notes that Salt Creek “divides near the foot of the mountain, and passes across the valley in two streams, about one mile apart.”

Hunt Company (Peteetneet Creek to Summit Creek): They “left camp” at 10:00 a.m. and traveled eight miles to “a small stream of pure cold water,” where they camped. Sheldon Young noted that Captain Hunt, their guide, was in his company.[33]

The stream is now known as Summit Creek and is in Santaquin, Utah.

Pratt, Blackwell and Brown (Big Cottonwood Creek to Willow Creek): Hiram Blackwell and James Brown arrived back at Big Cottonwood Creek. Brown “traded with John Brown” for “another ox.”[34] Addison Pratt’s wife, having heard of the delay, also “came up on horseback.” At noon, Pratt, Blackwell, Brown and Mrs. Pratt “moved forward.” They commenced a “gradual ascent in the middle of the valley.” The bottom of the valley consisted of sage and on the hills were cedar. They “camped that night on Willow Creek 20 miles from the Council House” and 10 miles from Big Cottonwood Creek. Some gold diggers came up and camped with them.[35]

Willow Creek is now the site of Draper, Utah.

October 5, 1849 (Friday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Salt Creek to Chicken Creek): They left Salt Creek and “traveled over a barren plain, without water or grass and encamped” at Chicken Creek which was “some springs, near which is a small lake.” Shearer states:

The valley seems to terminate here and open in other directions. The valley has maintained a north and south course from the Utah Lake. Here it opens east and west. Our course is by the west end of the valley or pass. A number of streams enter this valley that have no outlet, but sink in the sand in making their way across it. There is fine grass at the watering places but the bunch grass prevails generally and it is as dry as dust. The soil is thin and needs only to be moved to be dust from the extreme dryness of the season. The mountains, after leaving Spanish Fork, gradually wear off, and at this point become low hills. On the right we have supposed from the lowness of the hills and not seeing any mountains beyond, that there is another valley near running parallel to this…The hills are covered with cedar.[36]

Hunt Company (Summit Creek to Willow Creek): The Hunt company traveled ten miles over “good roads.” They “left the Utah Valley,” crossed over a divide into Juab Valley and camped on “a small stream of water,”[37] which was likely Willow Creek.[38] There they found “plenty of grass and willows for fuel.”[39]

Pratt and Blackwell (Willow Creek to Fort Utah): Mrs. Pratt and James Brown left them. Addison Pratt and Hiram Blackwell ascended the “divide between Utah and Salt Lake Valleys” which was “a very hard hill to ascend.”[40] The summit of the divide was 4 7/8 miles from Willow Creek.[41] Near the divide,[42] there was a “boiling spring” with “scalding hot” water.[43] It was so hot, “the hand could be retained in it but a moment” and “steam arose from the water similar” to steam escaping from a “safety valve.”[44] Pratt noted that at the top of the divide he “expected to see Blackwell throw away his tobacco according to his promise, but he did not.” Going down the divide, they “came in sight of Utah Lake.” It was “a beautiful sheet of water some forty miles long” and lying “in a sort of triangle.” It was “surrounded by a large valley covered with a heavy growth of grass.” About noon,[45] 9 ¼ miles further, they crossed American Creek. 11 ½ miles further,[46] at night, they reached the Provo River and Fort Utah. There they found Captain Hunt “who had left his company and came back to hurry” them along. Fort Utah was built in Utah Valley in the spring of 1848 by about 50 families, including the family of Captain Hunt.[47] Pratt and Blackwell traveled a distance of 25 5/8 miles during the day.

October 6, 1849 (Saturday):

Cannon (Bowery at Great Salt Lake City): “Meeting appointed at the Bowery, I accordingly met Bro. Brigham [Young who] spoke at some length on the necessity of men keeping the commandments of God and walking uprightly. Said that a man that thought when he came back from a mission that he could live in ease was not in the path of his duty; or that lusted for farms, horses, Cattle, Gold or anything else were not doing what was right. A man must always live with the love of the priesthood in his heart, and not the love of the things of this world, and whatever he has[,] let it go freely and put it out to usury; for the Lord loves not the niggard and the man that closes up his heart.”[48]

Hunt Company – Main Group (Willow Creek to Salt Creek): On a “pleasant day,” they traveled “a good road,” but found it “rather dusty.” They saw “plenty of wolves, but no other game.” After traveling 14 miles, they “camped on a small stream of good water,” known as Salt Creek, with “plenty of grass.” The nearby mountains were “not very high” and had “no snow on them.”[49]

Salt Creek was named because of some salt springs which fed into the creek in a canyon above the valley. Two years later, in 1851, Brigham Young directed some settlors to build a settlement there, known as Nephi. Toward the end of 1851, Nephi consisted of 23 cabins built of willows and mud.[50]

Pratt, Blackwell and Hunt Company – Rear Party (Fort Utah to Peteetneet Creek): Pratt and Blackwell left Fort Utah with Captain Hunt, but Captain Hunt “soon left” them as he was on a horse. They crossed Hobble Creek at noon, crossed Spanish Fork Creek “towards evening,” and “overtook and camped with a part of the company on Election Creek” at night.[51] They traveled a distance of 18 ¼ miles.

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Chicken Creek to Sevier River): They left Chicken Creek and “passed around the end of the lake or marsh”[52] and “crossed a small stream” that found “its way through the hills in the direction of the Sevier River.” They “crossed a low range of hills by a gentle slope and found” themselves “in sight of the river.” Shearer states:

The Sevier River runs from the east and runs from this point northwest. The camping here is good…The general appearance of the country has changed from high mountains to low hills, presenting the appearance of a plain with irregular ranges of hills. Vegetation is dried up except at the streams. The country over which we have passed today is the most barren and desolate that we have seen.[53]

They found the grave of Francois Badeau who was with Fremont and was “accidentally shot” here.[54] They also “found and burned some wood” that was “cut and left” by Fremont. They were visited by Indians that “were dressed in skins and seemed poorer than any” they had “yet seen.”[55]

October 7, 1849 (Sunday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Sevier River to Cedar Creek): They “repaired” the “crossing” at the Sevier River, then “crossed over” and “ascended a gentle slope of a ridge to the south.” Then they “descended into a small valley,” which was the Scipio Valley, crossed over to the southwest” and “entered a canyon or pass.” They “made an ascent just in time to see the setting sun.” They descended in the dark, not being able to see the Sevier Lake Valley. They camped at “Cedar Springs.”[56]

Cannon (Great Salt Lake City): “Busy all day preparing for starting. In Evening attended meeting in Bowery; those going on missions were blest numbering in all [22]; [five] of the Twelve viz: John Taylor, Lorenzo Snow, Chas. C. Rich, Erastus Snow, Franklin Richards and the remainder High Priests & Seventies. The Spirit of the Lord was apparent and I felt it very sensibly; Bro. P[arley] P. Pratt while blessing Bro. Peter Hansen[,] a Dane who was going with Bro. E[rastus] Snow to Denmark, spoke in tongues and continued blessing him.”[57]

Hunt Company – Main Group (Salt Creek): The Hunt company “lay in camp” all day and “had preaching” while they waited “for some wagons” that were behind them.[58]

Pratt, Blackwell and Hunt Company – Rear Party (Peteetneet Creek to Willow Creek): Pratt and Blackwell “started early in the morning and left the rest in camp.” Pratt noted that American Fork, the Provo River, Hobble Creek and Election Creek all had a “swift current, and discharge” their waters into Utah Lake. He felt they would “all afford excellent mill sites” and noted there were three gristmills and four sawmills in the Salt Lake Valley. At noon they let their cattle feed near some “deep wells” and one of their oxen fell in. The “oxen would have drowned had” they “not taken another yoke of cattle and drawn him out.” At night they “overtook another portion of the company on Willow Creek and camped with them.” They traveled a distance of 17 miles.[59]

Joseph Hamelin of the Pomeroy wagon train, describing the difference between the Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake, said it was “strange that within so short” a “distance two large lakes should be found, so opposite in character: one 33 1/3% salt, the other almost pure” water.[60] While waiting two months to take the southern route in 1850, David Cheesman was directed to a “spring of fresh water” near the “point of the mountain range” and that “between that point and the lake was a fine meadow” where he could keep his “cattle on good feed.”[61]

The wells, mentioned above, were at or near Spring Lake. Willow Creek is a little north of present day Mona, Utah in the Juab Valley.

October 8, 1849 (Monday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Wild Goose Creek): They “remained in camp” to rest. “The morning light showed” a “large and handsome valley” with “a lake at a distance to the northwest,” which they “supposed to be Sevier Lake.” There was “fine water and grass near the mountain on the left.” The “prevailing growth” in the valley was “sage and bunch grass,” while the mountains were “generally covered with cedar.” Shearer also noted seeing “some beautiful pale red flowers” while “crossing the mountain.” The range of mountains through which” they had “just passed” was “higher than any” they had seen since leaving Utah Valley, but the mountains “to the right” did “not appear to be so high,” possibly “owing to the distance.” There were “occasional slight eminences in the valley. The nights were cold “enough to form ice 1/8 to ½ inch thick” on water.[62]

Cannon (Great Salt Lake City): Writing for Uncle [John Taylor] and Twelve to Bro. [Samuel] Brannan occupied variously during the day. I received a blessing from the hands of Brother [Erastus] Snow[,] Bro. [Franklin D.] Richards and Uncle; the[y] told me that I should be blessed and prospered in my undertaking and be a pattern to my brethren for sobriety… and that the Angels of the Lord should watch over me and that I should return in safety.”[63]

Hunt Company – Main Group (Salt Creek): The main group of the Hunt company remained at Salt Creek.

Hunt Company – Advance Party (Salt Creek to Chicken Creek): The advance portion of the Hunt company, including Sheldon Young, left Salt Creek and descended most of the day on “a very dusty road” and “camped on a beautiful bottom”[64] which appears to have been Chicken Creek.[65] Captain Hunt’s usual practice was to take “four or five men with him on the trail every morning to go ahead and dig down the banks of creeks and cut the brush.”[66] We have no record of whether Captain Hunt was with this group or whether he had authorized them to go ahead without him. If he was with them, he would have had to travel over 40 miles the day before to reach them (having left Addison Pratt and Hiram Blackwell at Fort Utah). “A train of packers passed” them during the day. They had a rain shower during the night.[67]

Chicken Creek is southwest of present-day Levan, Utah.

Pratt and Blackwell (Willow Creek to Salt Creek): Pratt and Blackwell traveled eight miles and “overtook the main body of the camp” of “about 100 wagons on Salt Creek.” Pratt noted that “a mountain of salt” was near there.[68]

Rich and Brown (Great Salt Lake City to Big Cottonwood Creek): Charles C. Rich, “having been appointed to assist Amasa Lyman in the presidency” of “Upper California” by “the conference held on the 6th,” left his home in Great Salt Lake City at 2:00 p.m. He traveled to Big Cottonwood Creek where he stayed with G.M. Flake.[69] James S. Brown “started out alone to meet with the others” at Big Cottonwood Creek. As he “passed the home of Dr. Willard Richards, counselor to President Brigham Young, Dr. Richards came out and met” him. Dr. Richards took Bro. Brown “by the right knee with his right hand,” as Brown sat on his horse, and then stated:

‘Starting out on your mission, I suppose?’ I replied, ‘Yes, sir.’ ‘Well, Brother James, I am glad, and sorry; glad to have you go and preach the gospel, and sorry to part with good young men that we need in opening up a new country.’ At that he gave my knee an extra grip. Stretching his left hand out to the southwest, his chin quivering and his eyes filling with tears, he said, ‘Brother James, when you are upon yonder distant islands, called to preside over a branch of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, men will seek your life, and to all human appearance, there will be no possible escape: then look unto God, and His angels shall draw near unto you, and you shall be delivered, to return home to this people. Do not stop to write to Brother Pratt, your president, to Brother Brigham or to me, for you will require the immediate protection of God. Then put your trust in him, and He will deliver you; for I promise you in the name of Israel’s God that you shall be delivered from your enemy and return to this people. Goodbye, and God bless you.’

After the meeting with Willard Richards, Brown went “to Brother Jacob M. Truman’s, on Big Cottonwood Creek, and stayed with him that night.”[70]

October 9, 1849 (Tuesday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Wild Goose Creek further into the Pahvant Valley): They passed Chalk Creek and noted that the “streams fall into small lakes or marshes, around which grow rushes and some timber.” After traveling about 11 miles, they “encamped without water,” some distance before reaching Meadow Creek.[71]

Cannon (Great Salt Lake City): “Engaged in preparations for journey.”[72]

Hunt Company (Salt Creek and Chicken Creek to the Sevier River): Pratt and Blackwell started from Salt Creek with the main “body” of the emigrant company and Captain Hunt as their “head pilot.”[73] Sheldon Young and the advance party of the company started from Chicken Creek and noted “some rough roads.”[74] The main body and advance party joined together on the Sevier River where they camped, 24 7/8 miles from Salt Creek.[75] Sheldon Young noted “plenty” of Indians “about the camp” wanting “to trade. An old flintlock gun” would “fetch a good pony.”[76]

The trail reached the Sevier River a little north of where U.S. 91 now strikes it.

Rich, Brown and Pomeroy (Big Cottonwood Creek to Fort Utah: That morning, Brothers Brown, Rich and Pomeroy met at Brother John Bill’s home for breakfast.[77] They were joined by Alexander Williams, who lived at Fort Utah. They traveled 35 3/8 miles to Fort Utah “by the Indian trail” and stayed at Alexander Williams’ home. At Fort Utah they “learned that the citizens and Indians had had some trouble, and there was considerable excitement.”[78] The Indians had “fired” on some of the people[79] and the “Indians were quite numerous” while “there were but few settlers.” The Indians “were singing war songs and working up a spirit of war preliminary,” as the settlers supposed, “to making an attack that night or next morning.” The “people were preparing to receive them as best they could. Guards were posted around the camp, and men put on picket duty, so that any enemy might be discovered readily.”[80]

October 10, 1849 (Wednesday):

Gruwell-Derr Wagon Train (Pahvant Valley to White Sage Flat): They continued “in the same valley over a sage plain to a creek where” they “found good water, grass and willow and sage for wood.” Jack rabbits were numerous.[81]

Cannon (Great Salt Lake City): “Sat up greater part of night fixing saddles… and writing a letter to Charles [Lambert].”[82]

Hunt Company (Sevier River): The Hunt wagon train “forded the Sevier” River. The Sevier had “muddy water” and was “not very rapid.” It was “six rods wide, three feet deep” and had a “sandy bottom” which made it “slow fording.”[83] It was the largest stream they would cross between Great Salt Lake City and California.[84] Because of the time involved in crossing the Sevier, they were not going to have time to get to their next camping spot and decided to lay over.[85] They traveled only two miles.[86] Sheldon Young noted that the wagon train now consisted of 100 wagons and 400 men.[87]

Rich, Brown and Pomeroy (Fort Utah to Spring Creek): At Fort Utah, “just before sunrise,” the Indians “started from their camps in force, to attack.” The men of the Fort “advanced to meet them,” to “prevent their assailing” the Fort “where the women and children were.” The Indians “marched up as if to give” them “open battle.” The men “formed across the road, and each man took his post ready for action.” James Brown stated:

If it had not been for the presence of Apostle C.C. Rich, and his cool, conciliatory action, there would have been bloodshed, for there were some very hot-headed white men, who would have preferred war to peace. Through Brother Rich’s influence, the cause of the trouble was looked into, a conciliation effected, and war averted.[88]

Charles Rich noted that the Indians had “considerable numbers.” He had a “consultation” with the Indians, and determined that they “wished” for “peace.” He “made a speech to the brethren and organized them” and also “gave the Indians some council.” About 10:00 a.m.,[89] after breakfast, Rich, Brown and Pomeroy “proceeded on” to Hobble Creek. They believed the place “would be capable of sustaining eight or ten families, or a dairy, believing there was not enough water for more.” From Hobble Creek, they “passed on from one small stream to another, expressing" their opinions “as to the capacity of the water supply. In no instance” did they feel “there was water sufficient for more than fifteen families.”[90] They passed Spanish Fork Creek and Peteetneet Creek and finally “camped on a small clear stream” about three miles beyond Peteetneet Creek.[91]

Spanish Fork Creek is where the city of Spanish Fork, Utah is now located.


[1] Young
[2] Brown
[3] Reeder, p. 103; 49ers, p. 62, n. 11
[4] Cheesman Memoir, p. 287-288
[5] Shearer.
[6] Young
[7] Mormon Way-Bill; Young lists the distance as six miles.
[8] Pratt
[9] Brown
[10] Pratt; John Brown was the leader of a group of Mormons from Mississippi which went west in 1846 ahead of Brigham Young. They wintered at Pueblo, Colorado and the next spring went to Utah. (49ers, p. 69, n. 39) Sheldon Young correctly estimated the distance from Salt Lake City to Big Cottonwood Creek as ten miles.
[11] Hamelin (November 5, 1849)
[12] Cheesman, David W., “By Ox Team From Salt Lake to Los Angeles, 1850,” (a memoir edited by Foy, Mary E.) Historical Society of Southern California: Annual Publication (1930), p. 280 (Cheesman Memoir)
[13] Cheesman Memoir, p. 285
[14] Cheesman Memoir, p. 272
[15] Cheesman Memoir, p. 281
[16] Cheesman Memoir, p. 284
[17] Cheesman Memoir, p. 285
[18] Cheesman Memoir, p. 284
[19] Cheesman Memoir, p. 287
[20] Cheesman Memoir, p. 281
[21] Cheesman Memoir, p. 273, 283
[22] Shearer
[23] Young
[24] Pratt; Pratt stated there were 10 wagons in each division, which would be 70 wagons; Young stated there were seven captains for seventy-five wagons. Later, there were over 100 wagons.
[25] Young
[26] Pratt
[27] Brewerton, in his travel over the Old Spanish Trail the year before, noted that at “night every care was taken to prevent surprise; the men took turns in guarding the animals, while our own mess formed the camp guard of the party. In an Indian country it is worthy of remembrance that a mule is by far the best sentry; they discover either by their keen sense of smell, or of vision, the vicinity of the lurking savage long before the mountaineer, experienced as he is, can perceive him. If thus alarmed, the mule shows its uneasiness by snorting and extending the head and ears toward the object of distrust.” (Brewerton, p. 65)
[28] Young
[29] GQC Journal, p. 24, citing Life Sketches of a Jayhawker
[30] Pratt
[31] Pratt
[32] 49ers, p. 61, n. 1
[33] Young
[34] Brown
[35] Pratt; The Mormon Way-Bill lists the distance from from the temple block at Great Salt Lake City to Willow Creek as 20 5/8 miles. The group of gold diggers could possibly have been Captain Smith or the first group of packers.
[36] Shearer
[37] Young
[38] 49ers, p. 63, n. __
[39] Young
[40] Pratt; Sheldon Young noted it was “a very bad hill to climb.” Hamelin, describing the route between Cottonwood and the divide between the Utah and Salt Lake Valleys, which he described as “a miniature South Pass.” (November 6, 1849)
[41] Mormon Way-Bill
[42] Young notes that the spring was five miles from Willow Creek and the Mormon Way-Bill indicates that the divide was 4 7/8 miles from Willow Creek.
[43] Young (_______, 1849)
[44] Hamelin (November 6, 1849)
[45] Pratt
[46] Mormon Way-Bill; Pratt referred to American Creek as American River and Sheldon Young referred to it as American Fork. Young also mentioned it was “full of trout.”
[47] Pratt
[48] GGC Journal, pp. 9-10; The Bowery, with walls of adobe brick and a shingled roof, was situated on the southeast corner of the temple block and used as the major meetinghouse until the Old Tabernacle was erected on the southwest corner of the same block. This was an early candlelight meeting for officers held after general conference. (GQC Journal, p. 9, nn. 23 and 24)
[49] Young; The Mormon Way-Bill lists the distance between Peteetneet Creek and Salt Creek as 25 miles. Young’s estimate for the distance over the two days was 24 miles.
[50] CHC 3:480
[51] Pratt
[52] This swampy ground was probably located at today’s Chicken Creek Reservoir. (GQC Journal, p. 92)
[53] Shearer
[54] Fremont stated that Badeau “was killed in drawing towards him a gun by the muzzle; the hammer being caught, discharged the gun, driving the ball through his head. We buried him on the banks of the river.” (49ers Supplement, p. 32, n. 10)
[55] Shearer; The Indians were Pahvant Utes which generally were partially dressed in buckskin, but in colder months wore blankets of tanned fur which were generally rabbit, but also were muskrat, badger, coyote and wolf. (Indian Handbook, p. 340, 345)
[56] Shearer
[57] GQC Journal, p. 11; It appears, from the minutes, that Cannon was not named as a missionary at the conference and was not blessed at the meeting. (GQC Journal, p. 11, n. 25) Yet, the journal entry for October 6th demonstrates that Brigham Young knew Cannon was going to the goldfields. This is evidence that the efforts of the gold missionaries were to be kept under wraps.
[58] Young
[59] Pratt
[60] Haemlin (November 6, 1849)
[61] Cheesman Memoir, p. 274
[62] Shearer
[63] GQC Journal, p. 12
[64] Young
[65] 49ers, p. 63, n. __; Sheldon Young states it was 15 miles to Chicken Creek and 16 miles to the Sevier River, or a total of 31 miles from Salt Creek to the Sevier River. The Mormon Way-Bill gives the distance of 18 5/8 miles from Salt Creek to Toola Creek and an additional 6 ¼ miles to the Sevier River. [Is Chicken Creek the same as Toola Creek?]
[66] Stover; Stover also indicated that “this was the first wagon train that had ever been through this country.” They were actually following behind the Gruwell-Derr wagon train and they had the benefit of the work and toil put in by the wagon train ahead of them. Porter Rockwell had also brought a wagon over the route the year before.
[67] Young; A group of about fifty packers known as the Ithaca and California Mining Company left Fort Utah in mid-August. Shortly thereafter, a second pack company guided by James Waters, a mountain man, left Great Salt Lake City. (GQC Journal, p.8) These packers appear to be too late to be part of these earlier groups.
[68] Pratt
[69] Rich
[70] Brown
[71] Shearer
[72] GQC Journal, p. 12
[73] Pratt
[74] Young
[75] Mormon Way-Bill
[76] Young; These were Pahvant Utes. (Indian Handbook, p. 340)
[77] Rich referred to him as John Bills and Brown referred to him as William Bills. Because Pratt’s is a contemporary account, deference is given to his version.
[78] Brown
[79] Rich
[80] Brown; The Indians were Timpanogots Utes which lived around the southern and eastern perimeter of Utah Lake, the area chosen by the Mormons to settle. These Indians were displaced by the Mormon settlement and later merged with Uintah and other western Utes on the Uintah Reservation. (Indian Handbook, p. 340)
[81] Shearer
[82] GQC Journal, p. 12
[83] Young; Hamelin stated the Sevier was 20 rods wide.
[84] Pratt
[85] Young
[86] Pratt; Young estimated three miles.
[87] Young; Brown noted the emigrant train consisted of 500 men and 100 wagons. Young’s is a contemporaneous account and therefore considered more reliable. Rich, several days later, noted there were 100 wagons but made no mention of the number of men.
[88] Brown
[89] Rich
[90] Brown
[91] Rich; Rich states they went 21 miles and Peteetneet Creek was 18 ¼ miles from Fort Utah.

1 comment:

  1. I'm doing research on the Old Spanish Trail and the area you trekked through. Please contact me—thanks.

    LeRoy C. Johson